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The "standard interpretation" of the Turing Test, in which player C, the interrogator, is given the task of trying to determine which player – A or B – is a computer and which is a human.The interrogator is limited to using the responses to written questions to make the determination.The Turing test, developed by Alan Turing in 1950, is a test of a machine's ability to exhibit intelligent behavior equivalent to, or indistinguishable from, that of a human.Turing proposed that a human evaluator would judge natural language conversations between a human and a machine designed to generate human-like responses.The evaluator would be aware that one of the two partners in conversation is a machine, and all participants would be separated from one another.The conversation would be limited to a text-only channel such as a computer keyboard and screen so the result would not depend on the machine's ability to render words as speech.If the evaluator cannot reliably tell the machine from the human, the machine is said to have passed the test.
René Descartes prefigures aspects of the Turing Test in his 1637 Discourse on the Method when he writes: [H]ow many different automata or moving machines can be made by the industry of man [...] For we can easily understand a machine's being constituted so that it can utter words, and even emit some responses to action on it of a corporeal kind, which brings about a change in its organs; for instance, if touched in a particular part it may ask what we wish to say to it; if in another part it may exclaim that it is being hurt, and so on.But it never happens that it arranges its speech in various ways, in order to reply appropriately to everything that may be said in its presence, as even the lowest type of man can do.Here Descartes notes that automata are capable of responding to human interactions but argues that such automata cannot respond appropriately to things said in their presence in the way that any human can.Descartes therefore prefigures the Turing Test by defining the insufficiency of appropriate linguistic response as that which separates the human from the automaton.Descartes fails to consider the possibility that future automata might be able to overcome such insufficiency, and so does not propose the Turing Test as such, even if he prefigures its conceptual framework and criterion.Denis Diderot formulates in his Pensées philosophiques a Turing-test criterion: "If they find a parrot who could answer to everything, I would claim it to be an intelligent being without hesitation." This does not mean he agrees with this, but that it was already a common argument of materialists at that time.According to dualism, the mind is non-physical (or, at the very least, has non-physical properties) and, therefore, cannot be explained in purely physical terms.According to materialism, the mind can be explained physically, which leaves open the possibility of minds that are produced artificially.In 1936, philosopher Alfred Ayer considered the standard philosophical question of other minds: how do we know that other people have the same conscious experiences that we do?In his book, Language, Truth and Logic, Ayer suggested a protocol to distinguish between a conscious man and an unconscious machine: "The only ground I can have for asserting that an object which appears to be conscious is not really a conscious being, but only a dummy or a machine, is that it fails to satisfy one of the empirical tests by which the presence or absence of consciousness is determined." (This suggestion is very similar to the Turing test, but is concerned with consciousness rather than intelligence.Moreover, it is not certain that Ayer's popular philosophical classic was familiar to Turing.) In other words, a thing is not conscious if it fails the consciousness test. A and C are to be rather poor chess players, B is the operator who works the paper machine. Two rooms are used with some arrangement for communicating moves, and a game is played between C and either A or the paper machine.